PTYS/LPL Faculty

William Hubbard

FORMER STUDENTS

  • Jonathan Fortney, 2004 (PTYS)
  • Maki Hattori, 2008 (PTYS)
  • Joseph MacFarlane, 1983 (PTYS)
  • Robert Marcialis, 1990 (PTYS)
  • Mark Marley, 1990 (PTYS)
  • Wayne Slattery, 1976 (PTYS)

FORMER POSTDOC(S)

  • George Horedt, 1982-1983
  • Didier Saumon, 1992-1994
  • Tristan Guillot, 1995-1996
William Hubbard
Professor
Planetary atmospheres & interiors
Ph.D., 1967, Berkeley

Kuiper   #417
520-621-6942


Years with LPL:  1972 to present

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Dr. Hubbard's research focuses on studies of the structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). Originally as a Co-Investigator with the proposed INSIDE Jupiter orbiter and now as a Juno Co-Investigator, he showed how high-precision gravity data from a close-range Jupiter orbiter can be used to determine the depths to which Jupiter's extraordinary zonal wind patterns penetrate. Hubbard contributed to the 2013-2022 Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey of the US National Research Council as a member of the Giant Planet Panel. He is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was awarded the 2005 Gerard P. Kuiper Prize in Planetary Sciences by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society. In collaboration with Burkhard Militzer at UC Berkeley, Hubbard is incorporating Militzer's first-principles density-functional equations of state for hydrogen-helium mixtures in models of Jupiter, Saturn, and EGPs. The models are matched to measurements of heat flow, mass, radius, and high-order gravity field (where known). One of the main objectives of the research is a determination of the metallicity of Jupiter and a validation of the standard cooling theory that is applied to EGPs.

In collaboration with Adam Showman (LPL) and Yohai Kaspi (Caltech), Hubbard is analyzing the signature of interior dynamics on Jupiter's high-order gravity field.

The above projects are a component of Hubbard's research related to his role as a Co-Investigator on the Juno spacecraft scheduled to enter Jupiter orbit in 2016.

CV for Dr. Hubbard (PDF)

CURRENT GRANTS

Juno Science Support Phase E Activities, NASA

CURRENT SPACECRAFT INVOLVEMENT

Juno (NASA New Frontiers Jupiter orbiter mission), to be launched in August 2011, Jupiter orbit insertion in 2016: Juno Mission

FORMER SPACECRAFT INVOLVEMENT

INSIDE Jupiter Co-Investigator (low-periapse orbiter mission proposed under NASA Discovery Program, 1998 and 2001 cycles)

ADS PUBLICATIONS SEARCH

NASA ADS Author search: William B. Hubbard

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Kaspi, Y., et al. Atmospheric confinement of jet streams on Uranus and Neptune 2013Natur.497..344K

Hubbard, W. B. Concentric Maclaurin Spheroid Models of Rotating Liquid Planets 2013ApJ...768...43H

Hubbard, W. B. High-precision Maclaurin-based Models of Rotating Liquid Planets 2012ApJ...756L..15H

Kaspi, Y., et al. Gravitational signature of Jupiter's internal dynamics 2010GeoRL..3701204K

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Buoyancy waves in Pluto’s high atmosphere: Implications for stellar occultations 2009Icar..204..284H

Barnes, J. W., et al. Detecting the Wind-Driven Shapes of Extrasolar Giant Planets from Transit Photometry 2009ApJ...706..877B

Militzer, B., Hubbard, W. B. Comparison of Jupiter interior models derived from first-principles simulations 2009Ap&SS.322..129M

Widemann, T., etal. Titania's radius and an upper limit on its atmosphere from the September 8, 2001 stellar occultation 2009Icar..199..458W

Hubbard, W. B., et al. The Interior of Saturn 2009sfch.book...75H

Militzer, B., et al. A Massive Core in Jupiter Predicted from First-Principles Simulations 2008ApJ...688L..45M

McCarthy, D. W., et al. Long-Wavelength Density Fluctuations Resolved in Pluto's High Atmosphere 2008AJ....136.1519M

Person, M. J., et al. Waves in Pluto's Upper Atmosphere 2008AJ....136.1510P

Burrows, A., et al. Possible Solutions to the Radius Anomalies of Transiting Giant Planets 2007ApJ...661..502B

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Effects of mass loss for highly-irradiated giant planets 2007Icar..187..358H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. A Mass Function Constraint on Extrasolar Giant Planet Evaporation Rates 2007ApJ...658L..59H

Hubbard, W. B. Hydrogen Eos at Megabar Pressures and the Search for Jupiter's Core 2005Ap&SS.298..129H

Hubbard, W. B. Planet formation The core problem 2004Natur.431...32H

Burrows, A., et al. Theoretical Radii of Transiting Giant Planets: The Case of OGLE-TR-56b 2004ApJ...610L..53B

Fortney, J. J., Hubbard, W. B. Effects of Helium Phase Separation on the Evolution of Extrasolar Giant Planets 2004ApJ...608.1039F

Burrows, A., Sudarsky, D., Hubbard, W. B. A Theory for the Radius of the Transiting Giant Planet HD 209458b 2003ApJ...594..545B

Hubbard, W. Planetary science: Pluto's atmospheric surprise 2003Natur.424..137H

Fortney, J. J., Hubbard, W. B. Phase separation in giant planets: inhomogeneous evolution of Saturn 2003Icar..164..228F

Fortney, J. J., et al. On the Indirect Detection of Sodium in the Atmosphere of the Planetary Companion to HD 209458 2003ApJ...589..615F

Raynaud, E., et al. The 10 October 1999 HIP 9369 occultation by the northern polar region of Jupiter: ingress and egress lightcurves analysis 2003Icar..162..344R

de Pater, I., Lissauer, J. J., Hubbard, W. B. Planetary Sciences 2002PhT....55l..64D

Hubbard, W. B., Burrows, A., Lunine, J. I. Theory of Giant Planets 2002ARA&A..40..103H

Geissler, P. E., et al. Morphology and time variability of Io's visible aurora 2001JGR...10626137G

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Theory of Extrasolar Giant Planet Transits 2001ApJ...560..413H

Burrows, A., et al. The theory of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets 2001RvMP...73..719B

Elliot, J. L., et al. The Prediction and Observation of the 1997 July 18 Stellar Occultation by Triton: More Evidence for Distortion and Increasing Pressure in Triton's Atmosphere 2000Icar..148..347E

Burrows, A., et al. New Ideas in the Theory of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs 2000prpl.conf.1339B

Burrows, A., et al. On the Radii of Close-in Giant Planets 2000ApJ...534L..97B

Sicardy, B., et al. The Structure of Titan's Stratosphere from the 28 Sgr Occultation 1999Icar..142..357S

Trilling, D. E., et al. Migration and evolution of extrasolar planets 1999PCEC...24..553T

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Comparative evolution of Jupiter and Saturn 1999P&SS...47.1175H

Liebert, J., Hubbard, W. B. Astronomy: Big planets and little stars 1999Natur.400..316L

Hubbard, W. B. NOTE: Gravitational Signature of Jupiter's Deep Zonal Flows 1999Icar..137..357H

Trilling, D. E., et al. Orbital Evolution and Migration of Giant Planets: Modeling Extrasolar Planets 1998ApJ...500..428T

Guillot, T., Gautier, D., Hubbard, W. B. NOTE: New Constraints on the Composition of Jupiter from Galileo Measurements and Interior Models 1997Icar..130..534G

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Structure of Saturn's Mesosphere from the 28 SGR Occultations 1997Icar..130..404H

Burrows, A., et al. A Nongray Theory of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs 1997ApJ...491..856B

Hubbard, W. B. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Lensing by Triton's Atmosphere 1997Sci...278..403H

Olkin, C. B., et al. The Thermal Structure of Triton's Atmosphere: Results from the 1993 and 1995 Occultations 1997Icar..129..178O

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Liquid metallic hydrogen and the structure of brown dwarfs and giant planets 1997PhPl....4.2011H

Bus, S. J., et al. Stellar Occultation by 2060 Chiron 1996Icar..123..478B

Marley, M. S., et al. Atmospheric, Evolutionary, and Spectral Models of the Brown Dwarf Gliese 229 B 1996Sci...272.1919M

Saumon, D., et al. A Theory of Extrasolar Giant Planets 1996ApJ...460..993S

Guillot, T., et al. Giant Planets at Small Orbital Distances 1996ApJ...459L..35G

Burrows, A., et al. Prospects for detection of extra-solar giant planets by next-generation telescopes 1995Natur.375..299B

Elliot, J. L., et al. Jet-like features near the nucleus of Chiron 1995Natur.373...46E

Hubbard, W. B., et al. The occultation of SAO 78505 by Jupiter 1995Icar..113..103H

Stansberry, J. A., et al. Mirages and the nature of Pluto's atmosphere 1994Icar..111..503S

Roques, F., et al. Neptune's upper stratosphere, 1983-1990: ground-based stellar occultation observations III. Temperature profiles 1994A&A...288..985R

Saumon, D., et al. Cool zero-metallicity stellar atmospheres 1994ApJ...424..333S

Hubbard, W. B., et al. The occultation of 28 SGR by Saturn - Saturn pole position and astrometry 1993Icar..103..215H

Burrows, A., et al. An expanded set of brown dwarf and very low mass star models 1993ApJ...406..158B

Hubbard, W. B., et al. The occultation of 28 SGR by Titan 1993A&A...269..541H

Saumon, D., et al. The role of the molecular-metallic transition of hydrogen in the evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, and brown dwarfs 1992ApJ...391..827S

Chabrier, G., et al. The molecular-metallic transition of hydrogen and the structure of Jupiter and Saturn 1992ApJ...391..817C

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus 1991Sci...253..648H

Hubbard, W. B., Burrows, A., Lunine, J. I. The initial mass function for very low mass stars in the Hyades 1990ApJ...358L..53H

Dunham, D. W., et al. The size and shape of (2) Pallas from the 1983 occultation of 1 Vulpeculae 1990AJ.....99.1636D

Hubbard, W. B., Yelle, R. V., Lunine, J. I. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models 1990Icar...84....1H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Results for Titan's atmosphere from its occultation of 28 Sagittarii 1990Natur.343..353H

Marley, M. S., Lunine, J. I., Hubbard, W. B. The periodicities in the infrared excess of G29-38 - an oscillating brown dwarf? 1990ApJ...348L..37M

Burrows, A., Hubbard, W. B., Lunine, J. I. Theoretical models of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs 1989ApJ...345..939B

Millis, R. L., et al. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG +40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga 1989AJ.....98.1094M

Hubbard, W. B., Marley, M. S. Optimized Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus interior models 1989Icar...78..102H

Lunine, J. I., et al. The effect of gas and grain opacity on the cooling of brown dwarfs 1989ApJ...338..314L

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Occultation evidence for an atmosphere on Pluto 1988Natur.336..452H

Tholen, D. J., Hubbard, W. B. No effect of diffraction on Pluto-Charon mutual events 1988A&A...204L...5T

Marley, M. S., Hubbard, W. B. Thermodynamics of dense molecular hydrogen-helium mixtures at high pressure 1988Icar...73..536M

Narayan, R., Hubbard, W. B. Theory of anisotropic refractive scintillation - Application to stellar occultations by Neptune 1988ApJ...325..503N

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Structure of scintillations in Neptune's occultation shadow 1988ApJ...325..490H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Oblateness, radius, and mean stratospheric temperature of Neptune from the 1985 August 20 occultation 1987Icar...72..635H

Millis, R. L., et al. The size, shape, density, and albedo of Ceres from its occultation of BD+8 deg 471 1987Icar...72..507M

Lunine, J. I., Hubbard, W. B., Marley, M. S. Evolution and Infrared Spectra of Brown Dwarfs: Erratum 1987ApJ...316..473L

Lellouch, E., et al. Occultation determination of Neptune's oblateness and stratospheric methane mixing ratio 1986Natur.324..227L

Lunine, J. I., Hubbard, W. B., Marley, M. S. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs 1986ApJ...310..238L

Hubbard, W. B. 1981N1 - A Neptune arc? 1986Sci...231.1276H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Occultation detection of a Neptunian ring-like arc 1986Natur.319..636H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Occultation detection of a Neptune ring segment 1985JGRS...90...35H

Hubbard, W. B., Macfarlane, J. J. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. VIII - Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory for binary mixtures of H with He, C, and O 1985ApJ...297..133H

Hubbard, W. B. The solar system Barrie William Jones. Pergamon Press, Elmsford, New York, 1984. 336 pp., $40 1985Icar...62..538H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Results from observations of the 15 June 1983 occultation by the Neptune system 1985AJ.....90..655H

Iglesias, C. A., et al. Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas 1985PhRvA..31.1698I

Hubbard, W. B., Dewitt, H. E. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. VII - A perturbative free energy for arbitrary mixtures of H and He 1985ApJ...290..388H

Horedt, G. P., Hubbard, W. B. Two- and three-layer models of Uranus 1983M&P....29..229H

Macfarlane, J. J., Hubbard, W. B. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. V Three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory 1983ApJ...272..301M

Hubbard, W. B., Horedt, G. P. Computation of Jupiter interior models from gravitational inversion theory 1983Icar...54..456H

Hubbard, W. B. Effects of differential rotation on the gravitational figures of Jupiter and Saturn 1982Icar...52..509H

Reitsema, H. J., et al. Occultation by a possible third satellite of Neptune 1982Sci...215..289R

Hubbard, W. Earthlike planets Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars Bruce Murray, Michael C. Malin, and Ronald Greely 387 + xiv pp. W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco 1981 14.95 (paper), 24.95 (hardbound) 1982AstQ....4..133H

Hubbard, W. B. Structure of the Martian atmosphere from Epsilon GEM occultation observations 1982AdSpR...2..103H

Hubbard, W. B. Constraints on the origin and interior structure of the major planets 1981RSPTA.303..315H

Hubbard, W. B. Interiors of the giant planets 1981Sci...214..145H

Hubbard, W. B., Reitsema, H. J. Scintillation at two optical frequencies 1981ApOpt..20.3227H

Ross, M., Dewitt, H. E., Hubbard, W. B. Monte Carlo and perturbation-theory calculations for liquid metals 1981PhRvA..24.1016R

Hubbard, W. B. States of matter inside the planets 1981Natur.290..612H

Reitsema, H. J., et al. High-speed photometry of the 11 December 1979 Juno occultation 1981AJ.....86..121R

Millis, R. L., et al. The diameter of Juno from its occultation of AG + 0 deg 1022 1981AJ.....86..306M

Hubbard, W. B., Macfarlane, J. J. Theoretical predictions of deuterium abundances in the Jovian planets 1980Icar...44..676H

Hubbard, W. B., Zellner, B. H. Results from the 10 March 1977 occultation by the Uranus system 1980AJ.....85.1663H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Interior structure of Saturn inferred from Pioneer 11 gravity data 1980JGR....85.5909H

Hubbard, W. B. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets 1980RvGSP..18....1H

Anderson, J. D., et al. Pioneer Saturn celestial mechanics experiment 1980Sci...207..449A

Hubbard, W. B., Macfarlane, J. J. Structure and evolution of Uranus and Neptune 1980JGR....85..225H

Hubbard, W. B. On the atmosphere with exponential turbulence 1979Icar...39..473H

Hubbard, W. B. The epsilon Geminorum occultation - Evidence for waves or turbulence 1979ApJ...229..821H

Hubbard, W. B., Jokipii, J. R. Comment of the paper "On the wavelength dependence..." by Haugstad and Eshleman 1979ApJ...229..399H

Hubbard, W. B. Comparative thermal evolution of Uranus and Neptune 1978Icar...35..177H

Hubbard, W. B., Jokipii, J. R., Wilking, B. A. Stellar occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres - A wave-optical theory including a finite scale height 1978Icar...34..374H

Hubbard, W. B., Anderson, J. D. Possible flyby measurements of Galilean satellite interior structure 1978Icar...33..336H

Hubbard, W. B. White Dwarfs and Giant Planets 1978FCPh....3..167H

Hubbard, W. B. Wave optics of the central SPOT in planetary occultations 1977Natur.268...34H

Hubbard, W. B., et al. Observations of Uranus occultation events 1977Natur.268...33H

Africano, J., et al. The occultation of Epsilon Geminorum by Mars - Analysis of McDonald data 1977ApJ...214..934A

Hubbard, W. B., Jokipii, J. R. Turbulent scattering in an exponential atmosphere - A wave-optical solution 1977ApJ...214..924H

Jokipii, J. R., Levy, E. H., Hubbard, W. B. Effects of particle drift on cosmic-ray transport. I - General properties, application to solar modulation 1977ApJ...213..861J

Jokipii, J. R., Hubbard, W. B. Stellar Occultations by Turbulent Planetary Atmospheres: The Beta Scorpii Events 1977Icar...30..537J

Hubbard, W. B., Jokipii, J. R. Stellar occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres. I - A heuristic scattering model. II - The Beta Scorpii events 1977Icar...30..531H

Hubbard, W. B. De Sitter's theory flattens Jupiter 1977Icar...30..311H

Hubbard, W. B. The Jovian surface condition and cooling rate 1977Icar...30..305H

Slattery, W. L., Hubbard, W. B. Thermodynamics of a solar mixture of molecular hydrogen and helium at high pressure 1976Icar...29..187S

Dewitt, H. E., Hubbard, W. B. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. IV - A model free energy for the metallic phase 1976ApJ...205..295D

Hubbard, W. B. Ray propagation in oblate atmospheres 1976Icar...27..387H

Kliore, A. J., Woiceshyn, P. M., Hubbard, W. B. Temperature of the atmosphere of Jupiter from Pioneer 10/11 radio occultations 1976GeoRL...3..113K

Anderson, J. D., Hubbard, W. B. Gravitational Fields and Interior Structure of the Giant Planets 1976PrAA...50...71A

Hubbard, W. B. Comparison of geometrical effects in radio and stellar occultations 1975Icar...26..175H

Hubbard, W. B., Jokipii, J. R. Effects of turbulence on radio-occultation scale heights 1975ApJ...199L.193H

Hubbard, W. B., Hunten, D. M., Kliore, A. Effect of the Jovian oblateness on Pioneer 10/11 radio occultations 1975GeoRL...2..265H

Hubbard, W. B., Slattery, W. L., Devito, C. L. High zonal harmonics of rapidly rotating planets 1975ApJ...199..504H

Hubbard, W. B. Gravitational field of a rotating planet with a polytropic index of unity 1975SvA....18..621H

Hubbard, W. B. Interior structure of Uranus 1975Icar...24..285H

Anderson, J. D., Hubbard, W. B., Slattery, W. L. Structure of the Jovian envelope from Pioneer 10 gravity data 1974ApJ...193L.149A

Hubbard, W. B. Gravitational field of a rotating planet with a polytropic exponent equal to unity 1974AZh....51.1052H

Hubbard, W. B. Tides in the giant planets 1974Icar...23...42H

Hubbard, W. B. Deuterium Enrichment of Metallic Hydrogen 1974ApJ...190..223H

Hubbard, W. B. Inversion of Gravity Data for Giant Planets 1974Icar...21..157H

Hubbard, W. B., Trubitsyn, V. P., Zharkov, V. N. Significance of Gravitational Moments for Interior Structure of Jupiter and Saturn 1974Icar...21..147H

Hubbard, W. B., Smoluchowski, R. Structure of Jupiter and Saturn 1973SSRv...14..599H

Personick, S., et al. Measurements of material dispersion in an optical fiber 1973IJQE....9..639P

Hubbard, W. B. Observational Constraint on the Structure of Hydrogen Planets 1973ApJ...182L..35H

Slattery, W. L., Hubbard, W. B. Statistical Mechanics of Light Elements at High Pressure. III. Molecular Hydrogen 1973ApJ...181.1031S

Hubbard, W. B. The Significance of Atmospheric Measurements for Interior Models of the Major Planets (Article published in the Space Science Reviews special issue on 'Outer Solar System Exploration - An Overview', ed. by J. E. Long and D. G. Rea.) 1973SSRv...14..424H

Loumos, G. L., Hubbard, W. B. Solidification of a Carbon-Oxygen Plasma 1973ApJ...180..199L

Münch, G., et al. A strategy for investigation of the outer solar system. Outer planets, their satellites, and particles and fields at great distances from the sun. 1973SSRv...14..347M

Hubbard, W. B. Interior of Jupiter and Saturn 1973AREPS...1...85H

Evans, D. S., Hubbard, W. B. Jovian atmosphere-Discrepancies in scale height measurements 1972Natur.240..162E

Hubbard, W. B. Statistical Mechanics of Light Elements at High Pressure. II. Hydrogen and Helium Alloys 1972ApJ...176..525H

Hubbard, W. B., van Flandern, T. C. The Occultation of Beta Scorpii by Jupiter and Io. III. Astrometry 1972AJ.....77...65H

Hubbard, W., et al. The Occultation of Beta Scorpii by Jupiter and Io. I. Jupiter 1972AJ.....77...41H

Hubbard, W. B. Thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at high pressure and finite temperature 1972PEPI....6...65H

Warner, B., et al Observations of rapid blue variables - XI. DQ Herculis. 1972MNRAS.159..321W

Hubbard, W. B., Slattery, W. L. Statistical Mechanics of Light Elements at High Pressure. I. Theory and Results for Metallic Hydrogen with Simple Screening 1971ApJ...168..131H

Taylor, G. E., et al. Occultation of Beta Scorpii C by Io on May 14, 1971 1971Natur.234..405T

Hubbard, W. B. Structure of Jupiter: Chemical Composition, Contraction, and Rotation 1970ApJ...162..687H

Hubbard, W. B., Wagner, R. L. Hot White Dwarfs 1970ApJ...159...93H

Hubbard, W. B., Lampe, M. Thermal Conduction by Electrons in Stellar Matter 1969ApJS...18..297H

Hubbard, W. B. Thermal Models of Jupiter and Saturn 1969ApJ...155..333H

Hubbard, W. B. Thermal structure of Jupiter 1968ApJ...152..745H

Hubbard, W. B., Jr. Transport Coefficients of Degenerate Stellar Matter 1967PhDT.........2H

Hubbard, W. B. Studies in Stellar Evolution. V. Transport Coefficients of Degenerate Stellar Matter 1966ApJ...146..858H

O'dell, C. R., Hubbard, W. B., Peimbert, M. Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Gaseous Nebulae. III. Scattered Light in Three Bright H II Regions 1966ApJ...143..743O

O'dell, C. R., Hubbard, W. B. Photoelectirc Spectrophotometry of Gaseous Nebulae. I. The Orion Nebula. 1965ApJ...142..591O

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

[1] Convection in Degenerate Stars, in "Low-Luminosity Stars, " (S. Kumar, Ed.), p. 297, 1969, Gordon and Breach.

[3] Interior Structure of Jupiter: Theory of Gravity Sounding, W. B. Hubbard and W. L. Slattery, in "Jupiter" (T. Gehrels, Ed.), p. 179, University of Arizona Press, 1976.

[4] Interior Structure of Uranus, In "Uranus and Neptune" (Ed. J. T. Bergstrahl), NASA Conference Publication 2330, 291, 1984.

[5] Interior Structure of Saturn, W. B. Hubbard and D. J. Stevenson, in "Saturn" (ed. T. Gehrels and M. Matthews), Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1984, pp. 47-87.

[6] Interior Structure and Evolution of the Planets, in "Planets: Their Origin, Interior, and Atmosphere," (ed. P. Bartholdi, P. Bochsler, and Y. Chmielewski), 14th Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 63, 1984.

[7] Evolution of Super-Jupiters, in "Astrophysics of Brown Dwarfs" Cambridge Univ. Press, 1986, p 160.

[8] The Phase Diagram of Hydrogen with Other Elements, and Applications to Jovian Planet Interiors, in "The Physics of Planets" (ed. S. K. Runcorn), John Wiley & Sons, 1988.

[9] On the Oblateness and Rotation Rate of Neptune's Atmosphere, in "Conference on the Jovian Atmospheres" (Eds. M. Allison and L.C. Travis), NASA Conference Publ., 1986, p. 264.

[10] Structure of the Jovian Envelope and the Equation of State of Dense Hydrogen, W. B. Hubbard and M. S. Marley, in "Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics" (Eds. H. E. DeWitt and F. J. Rogers), Plenum Publishing Co., pp. 407-413, 1987.

[11] Models of Jovian Planets, W.B. Hubbard, in "Simple Molecular Systems at Very High Density," (ed. P. Loubeyre, A. Polian, and N. Boccara), p. 203, New York: Plenum, 1989.

[12] Structure and Composition of Giant Planet Interiors, W. B. Hubbard, in "Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres" (ed. S. K. Atreya, J. B. Pollack, and M. S. Matthews), p. 539, University of Arizona Press, 1989.

[13] Plasma Thermodynamics and the Evolution of Brown Dwarfs and Planets, in "Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics" (ed. S. Ichimaru), p. 21, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V./Yamada Science Foundation, 1990.

[14] Outer-Planet Interiors, in "The New Solar System" (IIIrd Ed., ed. J. Kelly
Beatty and Andrew Chaikin), Sky Publishing Corporation, 1990.

[15] Models of Uranus' Interior and Magnetic Field, M. Podolak, W. B. Hubbard, and D. J. Stevenson, in "Uranus" (ed. J. T. Bergstralh, E.D. Miner and M. S. Matthews), p. 29, University of Arizona Press, 1991.

[16] Gaseous Accretion and the Formation of Giant Planets, M. Podolak, W. B. Hubbard and J. B. Pollack, in "Protostars and Planets III" (ed. E. H. Levy, J. I. Lunine and M. S. Matthews), pp. 1109-1147, University of Arizona Press, 1993.

[17] The Plasma Phase Transition of Hydrogen in Giant Planets, D. Saumon, G. Chabrier, W. B. Hubbard, and J. I. Lunine, "Physics of Nonideal Plasmas," selected papers of the International workshop PNP VI, Eds. W. Ebeling, A. Förster and R. Radtke (Teubner: Stuttgart, Germany), p. 286, 1992.

[18] Giant Planets and the Plasma Phase Transition of Hydrogen, D. Saumon, G. Chabrier, W. B. Hubbard, and J. I. Lunine, in "Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics" (ed. H. M. Van Horn and S. Ichimaru), pp. 111-120, University of Rochester Press, 1993.

[18] Strongly Coupled Plasmas in Uranus and Neptune, W.B. Hubbard, in "Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics" (ed. H.M. Van Horn and S. Ichimaru), pp. 131-135, University of Rochester Press, 1993.

[19] Recent Theoretical Results on Brown Dwarf Properties and Evolution, J. I. Lunine, D. Saumon, W. B. Hubbard, and A. S. Burrows, in "Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics" (ed. H.M. Van Horn and S. Ichimaru), pp. 137-145, University of Rochester Press, 1993.

[20] Giant Planet, Brown Dwarf, and Low-mass Star Interiors, W. B. Hubbard, in "The Equation of State in Astrophysics" (ed. G. Chabrier and E. Schatzman), pp. 443-462, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

[21] Astronomy on the Edge: The Physical Theory of Brown Dwarfs and Late M Dwarfs, A. Burrows, W. B. Hubbard, and J. I. Lunine, in "Proceedings of The 8th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun" (ed. J.-P. Caillaut), PASP Conference Series #64, p. 528, 1994.

[22] The Quiet Lives of Very-Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs, D. Saumon, A. Burrows, and W. B. Hubbard, in "The Bottom of the Main Sequence -- and Beyond" (ed. C. Tinney), pp. 3-12, Springer Verlag: Heidelberg, 1995.

[23] Current Uncertainties in the Interior Physics of Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, J. I. Lunine, and D. Saumon, in "Elementary Processes in Dense Plasmas" (eds. S. Ichimaru and S. Ogata), pp. 227-238, Addison-Wesley: Reading, 1995.

[24] Properties of Objects Near the Main Sequence Edge, A. Burrows, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, and D. Saumon, in "Sources of Dark Matter in the Universe" (ed. D.B. Cline), p. 129, World Scientific, 1995.

[25] The Interior of Neptune, W. B. Hubbard, M. Podolak, and D. J. Stevenson, in "Neptune and Triton" (ed. D.P. Cruikshank), pp. 109-138, University of Arizona Press, 1995.

[26] On the Nature of the Newly Discovered Extrasolar Planets, T. Guillot, D. Saumon,
A. Burrows, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, M. S. Marley, and R. S. Freedman, in "Astronomical and Biochemical Origins and the Search for Life in the Universe" (eds. C. B. Cosmovici, S. Bowyer, and D. Werthimer), pp. 343--350, 1996.

[27] Theoretical Models of Extrasolar Giant Planets, A. Burrows, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, M. Marley, and R. Freedman, in "Proceedings of the International Conference on the Sources and Detection of Dark Matter in the Universe" (eds. D. Sanders et al.), Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl.), 51B, 76--85, 1996.

[28] Extrasolar Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Models, A. Burrows, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, M. Marley, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, and R. S. Freedman, in "Proceedings of Planets Beyond the Solar System and the Next Generation of Space Missions," (ed. David R. Soderblom), A. S. P. Conf. Series, 119, p. 9, 1997.

[29] The Spectral Character of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs, A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, D. Sudarsky, C. Sharp, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, and R. Freedman, in "Proceedings of The 10th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun" (ed. R. Donahue and J. Bookbinder), PASP Conference Series, 1997.

[30] Mutual Events and Stellar Occultations, R. P. Binzel and W. B Hubbard, in "Pluto and Charon" (eds. S.A. Stern and D.J. Tholen), pp. 85-102, University of Arizona Press, 1997.

[31] Advances in the Theory of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Giant Planets, A Burrows, D. Sudarsky, C. Sharp, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, and R. S. Freedman, in "Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets -- Proceedings of a workshop held in Tenerife, Spain, 17-21 March 1997" (eds. R. Rebolo, E. L. Martin, and M. R. Zapatero Osorio), p. 354, ASP Conference Series #134, 1998.

[33] Ices in the Giant Planets, M. Podolak and W. B. Hubbard, in "Solar System Ices" (eds. B. Schmitt et al.), pp. 735-748, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

[35] Speed of Sound in Planetary Atmospheres, R. D. Lorenz and W. B. Hubbard, in "Handbook of Elastic Properties of Materials," Vol. IV, Elastic Properties of Fluids: Liquids and Gases (eds. Levy, Bass, and Stern), pp. 389-398, Academic Press, 2001.

[36] Evolution of Giant Planets, W. B. Hubbard, in "From Giant Planets to Cool Stars" (eds. C. A. Griffith and M. S. Marley), pp. 223-229, Astron. Soc. Pacific Conference Series, 212, 2000.

[37] The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets, J. I. Lunine, W. B. Hubbard, and A. S. Burrows, in "ERCA," Vol. 4, (ed. C. Boutron), pp. 379-394. EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France, 2001.

[38] The Interior of Jupiter, T. Guillot, D. J. Stevenson, W. B. Hubbard, and D. Saumon, Chapter 3 in "Jupiter -- The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere" (ed. Fran Bagenal), Cambridge University Press, 2005.

POPULAR ARTICLES

[1] Jupiter and Beta Scorpii, D. S. Evans and W. B. Hubbard, Sky and Telescope, 42, 337, 1971.

[2] The Tucson Jupiter Conference, W. B. Hubbard and J. R. Jokipii, Sky and Telescope, 50, 212, 1975.

[3] The Baffling Ring Arcs of Neptune, A. Brahic and W. B. Hubbard, Sky and Telescope, 77, 606, 1989.

[4] Planetary Interiors, Jovian Planets, by W.B. Hubbard, in "The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia" (ed. S. P. Maran), Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992, pp. 525-527.

[5] Saturn, by W. B. Hubbard, in Encyclopedia Britannica, originally published in 15th Edition, 1993, vol. 27, pp. 508-514, and updated through 2007.

[6] Jupiter: Interior Structure, by W. B. Hubbard, in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences (eds. J.H. Shirley and R.W. Fairbridge), Chapman & Hall, 1st Edition, 1997, pp. 371-372.

[7] Neptune, by W.B. Hubbard, in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences (eds. J.H. Shirley and R.W. Fairbridge), Chapman & Hall, 1st Edition, 1997, pp. 521-523.

[8] Saturn: Interior Structure, by W.B. Hubbard, in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences (eds. J.H. Shirley and R.W. Fairbridge), Chapman & Hall, 1st Edition, 1997, pp. 717-718.

[9] Uranus, by W.B. Hubbard, in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences (eds. J.H. Shirley and R.W. Fairbridge), Chapman & Hall, 1st Edition, 1997, pp. 856-857.

[10] Interiors of the Giant Planets, in "The New Solar System" (IVth Ed., ed. J. Kelly Beatty, Carolyn Collins Peterson, and Andrew Chaikin), Sky Publishing Corporation, 1999, pp. 193-200.

[11] Uranus, by W. B. Hubbard, in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, CD version, 1999.

[12] Neptune, by W.B. Hubbard, in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, CD version, 1999.

[13] Caliban, by W.B. Hubbard, in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, CD version, 1999.

[14] Sycorax, By W.B. Hubbard, in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, CD version, 1999.

REVIEW PAPERS AND SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARIES

[9] Internal Structure of Uranus, J. J. MacFarlane and W. B. Hubbard, Proceedings of IAU/RAS Colloq. No. 60, "Uranus and the Outer Planets" (Ed. G. Hunt), Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.

[16] Planetary Formation and Evolution Revealed with a Saturn Entry Probe: The Importance of Noble Gases, J. J. Fortney, K. Zahnle, I. Baraffe, A. Burrows, S. E. Dodson-Robinson, G. Chabrier, T. Guillot, R. Helled, F. Hersant, W. B. Hubbard, J. J. Lissauer, and M. S. Marley, White Paper, Astronomy Decadal Review, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, 2010.

BOOKS

[1] Physics of Planetary Interiors, by V. N. Zharkov and V. P. Trubitsyn (edited and translated by W. B. Hubbard), Tucson: Pachart Publishing House, 1978.

[2] Planetary Interiors, by W. B. Hubbard, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Inc., 1984.

[3] Interior Structure of the Earth and Planets, by V. N. Zharkov (translated by W. B. Hubbard and R. Mastaler), Gordon And Breach/Harwood: Chur, 1986.

REFEREED EXTENDED ABSTRACTS

[1] Occultation Detection of a Neptune Ring Segment, W. B. Hubbard, A. Brahic, P. Bouchet, L. R. Elicer, R. Haefner, J. Manfroid, F. Roques, B. Sicardy, and F. Vilas, Lunar and Planetary Sci. XVI, 368, 1985.

[2] Occultation Diameter of Asteroid 1 Ceres, W. B. Hubbard, L. A. Lebofsky, D. M. Hunten, H. J. Reitsema, B. H. Zellner, R. Goff, R. Marcialis, M. Sykes, J. Frecker, A. Sanchez I., M. Rios H., and M. Izaguirre M., Lunar and Planetary Sci. XVI, 370, 1985.

ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS

[1] High Pressure Physics and Interiors of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs, W. B. Hubbard, T. Guillot, J. I. Lunine, A. Burrows, D. Saumon, M. S. Marley, and R. S. Freedman, Proceedings of the Adriatico Research Conference: Simple Systems at High Pressures and Temperatures: Theory and Experiment, ICTP Science Abstract No 22, http://www.ictp.trieste.it/$sim$pub_off/sci-abs/smr999 (ICTP, Trieste, October 1997).

BOOK REVIEWS by W. B. Hubbard

[1] Jupiter: The Giant Planet, by Reta Beebe. American Scientist, 84, 181-183, 1996.