Fundamentals and theory of the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. Hierarchy of equation sets used in geophysical fluid dynamics. Concepts of balance, vorticity, potential vorticity. Barotropic and baroclinic instability. Wave mean-flow interactions. Atmosphere/ocean turbulence. Dynamics of Hadley cells and jet streams; role of Rossby waves, gravity waves, and baroclinic eddies in helping to maintain the mean flow. Application of this theory to understand the fundamental mechanisms controlling the tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Earth and other planets. Basics of oceanic circulation, including wind-driven gyres, buoyancy-driven (overturning) circulation, and thermocline dynamics. This course identical to ATMO 641. ATMO is home department.