PTYS Graduate Courses

PTYS 502

Analytical and Numerical Modeling in Geosciences

Analytical and numerical solutions to partial differential equations and other models widely used in disparate fields of geosciences. Equivalent to: GEOS 502, ECOL 502, MCB 502; GEOS is home department. Course Requisites: MATH 129. Open to advanced undergraduates with strong mathematical backgrounds and consent of instructor and Graduate College.

PTYS/ASTR/GEOS/PHYS 503

Physics of the Solar System

Survey of planetary physics, planetary motions, planetary interiors, geophysics, planetary atmospheres, asteroids, comets, origin of the solar system. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on a selected topic and an oral class presentation. This course does not count toward the major requirements in Planetary Sciences. Equivalent to: ASTR 503, GEOS 503, and PHYS 503 (and cross-listed); may be co-convened with PTYS 403. PTYS is home department.

PTYS 505A

Principles of Planetary Physics

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Introductory physics of planetary and interplanetary gases, fluids and plasmas. Thermodynamics, kinetic theory, plasma physics, hydrodynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics with solar-system applications. This includes planetary atmospheres, turbulence, solar wind, solar-system magnetic fields, dynamo theory, and planetary magnetospheres. Students will be expected to be familiar with vector calculus and both ordinary and partial differential equations. Sample course syllabus, Giacalone (PDF).

PTYS 505B

Principles of Planetary Physics

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Quantitative investigation of the physical processes controlling planet formation, the orbital and rotational dynamics of planetary systems, the mechanical and thermal aspects of a planetary interior, and the dynamics of the Earth-Moon and other satellite systems. Sample course syllabus, Matsuyama (PDF)

PTYS 510A

Cosmochemistry

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. This course discusses the chemical processes important for the formation of our solar system and that subsequently acted on the objects within the solar system. It also discusses nuclear processes responsible for synthesis of the elements and alteration of isotopic abundances. Sample course syllabus, Zega (PDF)Sample course syllabus, Barnes (PDF)

PTYS 510B

Chemistry of the Solar System

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Provides an overview of the gas and ice chemistry in planetary environments including molecular structure, spectroscopy, kinetics. The course describes how these physical processes are manifest in the diverse solar system environments. The instructional level is aimed at beginning graduate students with an adequate background comparable to that obtained from advance undergraduate courses in physics and chemistry. Knowledge of vector calculus and elementary differential equations is assumed. Successful students will be able to understand current research in planetary chemistry and will be well prepared for more detailed studies.
Sample course syllabus, Pascucci (PDF)

 

PTYS 512

Planetary Global Tectonics

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Application of the physics of solid-state deformation to global tectonics of the terrestrial planets and icy moons of the solar system. Modes of topographic support, isostasy and implications for gravity/topography ratios on one-plate planets. Theory of floating elastic plates as an approximation to the lithosphere. Use of seismic data to determine the interior structure and composition and modes of heat conduction in planets.
Sample course syllabus, McEwen (PDF)
Sample course syllabus, Showman (PDF)

PTYS 513

Planetary Materials

This course discusses chemical thermodynamics and applies it to the origins and history of primitive planetary materials. The types of planetary materials will be discussed together with an overview of the chemical setting of their origins. We will discuss thermodynamic formalism, the various chemical pathways through which planetary materials are believed to have formed, the characterization and numerical methods we use to quantify such origins, and we will consider several case studies. Course may be co-convened with PTYS 413.

PTYS 516

Asteroids, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects

This is an introduction to the "minor planets," the asteroids, comets and Kuiper Belt objects. The focus will be on origin and evolution (including current evolution), as well as techniques of study. It will include an evening at the telescope of an asteroid search program. Graduate-level requirement includes some original work or calculations in the paper/project submitted and to research one of the primary topics and lead the class discussion of it. May be co-convened with PTYS 416.

PTYS 517

Atmospheres and Remote Sensing

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Structure, composition, and evolution of atmospheres; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; radiative transfer and spectral line formatting.
Sample course syllabus, Griffith (PDF)
Sample course syllabus, Showman (PDF)
Sample course syllabus, Yelle (PDF)

PTYS 518

Instrumentation and Statistics

Radiant energy; signals and noise; detectors and techniques for imaging, photometry, polarimetry and spectroscopy. Examples from stellar and planetary astronomy in the x-ray, optical, infrared and radio. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper. Identical to ASTR 518. ASTR is home department.

PTYS 519

Physics of the Earth

Fundamentals of the physics of the solid earth, including thermodynamics, rheology, geomagnetism, gravity, and plate tectonics. Graduate-level requirements include a term paper in publication format on some aspect of a major course topic. Identical to: GEOS 519; GEOS is home department. May be convened with: PTYS 419. Usually offered: Spring.

PTYS/GEOS 520

Meteorites

Classification; chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition; cosmic abundances; ages; interaction with solar and cosmic radiation; relation to comets and asteroids. Prerequisite(s): PTYS 510. Identical to: GEOS 520. Usually offered: Spring.

PTYS 521

Observational Planetary Astronomy & Remote Sensing

The course surveys current techniques and instrumentation used in observational astronomy, providing students with background that will allow them to consider the observational (empirical) basis of planetary astronomy. With this knowledge, students can begin to design observations to test their understanding of planetary atmospheres, surfaces, and orbital and bulk characteristics. Content includes: design of modern telescopes, optical configurations (e.g. adaptive optics), detectors, statistics, spectrometers and spacecraft instrumentation; UV, optical, infrared, sub-millimeter and radar techniques; basics of radiative transfer.

PTYS 522

Planetary Climate

Physical and chemical processes governing the climate of planets. Climate feedbacks and stability; greenhouse effect, ice-albedo feedback, cloud feedbacks. Effect of atmospheric circulation on climate. Milankovitch cycles and ice ages. Long-term atmospheric evolution; runaway greenhouse,SnowballEarth, atmospheric loss/collapse, faint young Sun problem. Interaction of climate with geology/biology. Observable signatures. Habitable zones. Application to Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, and habitability of extrasolar planets.

PTYS 526

Nanoscale Analysis of Materials Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

This course discusses the theory and practice of transmission electron microscopy as applied crystalline solids. Among the topics to be covered include electron scattering and diffraction, image formation, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Weekly lectures will be accompanied by several laboratory practical sessions. Emphasis will be placed on quantitative analysis of material structure and composition as well as the identification of unknown materials. Equivalent to: MSE 526; PTYS is home department.

PTYS/MSE 526

Nanoscale Analysis of Materials Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

This course discusses the theory and practice of transmission electron microscopy as applied crystalline solids. Among the topics to be covered include electron scattering and diffraction, image formation, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Weekly lectures will be accompanied by several laboratory practical sessions. Emphasis will be placed on quantitative analysis of material structure and composition as well as the identification of unknown materials. Equivalent to: MSE 526; PTYS is home department.

PTYS 530

The Chemical Evolution of Earth

Chemical differentiation and evolution of Earth's mantle and crust according to major-element, trace-element and isotopic characteristics of neodymium, hafnium, strontium, lead and other isotopes. Graduate-level requirements will include an additional paper. Course includes 1 or more field trips. Identical to GEOS 530. GEOS is home department.

PTYS/ASTR/ATMO/PHYS 537

The Physics of the Sun

The purpose of this course is to present an introduction to the physics of the Sun. Topics will include the physics of solar magnetic fields, solar interior and helioseismology, radiative transfer, solar wind, and solar-energetic particles. This course will introduce the equations of magnetohydrodynamics and apply them to important solar-physics problems. Examples include: the solar dynamo, the physics of sunspots and flares, origin of the solar wind, and the structure of the solar atmosphere. The emphasis throughout will be on basic physical processes and the various approximations used in their application to realistic and relevant problems. Identical to ASTR/ATMO/PHYS 537. PTYS is home department.

PTYS 541A

Dynamic Meteorology

Thermodynamics and its application to planetary atmospheres, hydrostatics, fundamental concepts and laws of dynamic meteorology. Identical to ATMO 541A. ATMO is home department.

PTYS 541B

Dynamic Metereology

Thermodynamics and its application to planetary atmospheres, hydrostatics, fundamental concepts and laws of dynamic meteorology. Graduate-level requirements include a more quantitative and thorough understanding of the subject matter. ATMO is home department.

PTYS 542

Mars

In-depth class about the planet Mars, including origin and evolution, geophysics, geology, atmospheric science, climate change, the search for life, and the history and future of Mars exploration. There will be guest lectures from professors and research scientists with expertise about aspects of Mars. There will be lots of discussion of recent results and scientific controversies about Mars. Graduate-level requirements include the completion of a research project that will be presented in class as well as a report. The research project could be analysis of Mars datasets, a laboratory experiment, or new theoretical modeling. Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Prerequisite(s): PTYS 411, Geology of the Solar System is strongly recommended but not required. Identical to: ASTR 542, GEOS 542. May be convened with: PTYS 442.

PTYS/ASTR/GEOS 542

Mars

In-depth class about the planet Mars, including origin and evolution, geophysics, geology, atmospheric science, climate change, the search for life, and the history and future of Mars exploration. There will be guest lectures from professors and research scientists with expertise about aspects of Mars. There will be lots of discussion of recent results and scientific controversies about Mars. Graduate-level requirements include the completion of a research project that will be presented in class as well as a report. The research project could be analysis of Mars datasets, a laboratory experiment, or new theoretical modeling. Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Prerequisite(s): PTYS 411, Geology of the Solar System is strongly recommended but not required. Identical to: ASTR 542, GEOS 542. May be convened with: PTYS 442.

PTYS/ATMO 544

Physics of High Atmospheres

Physical properties of upper atmospheres, including gaseous composition, temperature and density, ozonosphere, and ionospheres, with emphasis on chemical transformations and eddy transport. Identical to ATMO 544. PTYS is home department.

PTYS 545

Stars and Planets

This course will explore the physical principles that govern the structure and evolution of stars and planets. Topics covered will include stellar structure, energy generation and transport, and equations of state. Applying physical models and computational methods, fundamental properties of stars and planets will be derived, and compared with observational constraints. Identical to: ASTR 545; ASTR is home department. Usually offered: Fall.

PTYS 549

Radar Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

This graduate course will focus on the use of radar remote sensing for studies of planetary surfaces, including rocky and icy objects.  It will cover the basics of how radar works including SAR and sounding (ground penetrating) radar, the use of different frequencies, an introduction to electromagnetic wave propagation including polarimetry, radar data processing, and the use of radar field equipment. The course will include a discussion of some of the past, current and future radars included on spacecraft and their design and science results. The course will be focused on geosciences; in particular, applications relevant to planetary processes such as regolith development, volcanism, cratering, fluvial deposits etc. This class includes 3 hours/week lecture plus a lab and fieldwork component. Cross-listed with GEOS 549; may be co-convened. PTYS is home department.

PTYS 550

Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

This course will review the physical processes related to the formation and evolution of the protosolar nebula and of protoplanetary disks. In doing that, we will discuss the main stages of planet formation and how different disk conditions impact planetary architectures and planet properties. We will confront the theories of disk evolution and planet formation with observations of circumstellar disks, exoplanets, and the planets and minor bodies in our Solar System. This course is cross-listed with ASTR 550 and may be co-convened with PTYS 450.

PTYS/GEOS 551

Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

This graduate course will focus on the use of remote sensing in the study of rocky and icy planetary surfaces.It is not a science course, but rather intended to provide technical knowledge of how instruments work and practical techniques to deal with their datasets. In this course, we will cover how different types of remote-sensing instruments work in theory and practice along with case studies (student-led) of specific planetary science instruments.  We will discuss what datasets are generated by these instruments, their limitations and where they can be located. Lab sessions will provide experience in how these data are processed, visualized and intercompared. The class consists of two lectures and a 2.5-hour lab session each week. Cross-listed with GEOS, equivalent to GEOS 551.

PTYS 553

Solar System Dynamics

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. Dynamical processes affecting the orbital evolution of planets, asteroids, and satellites, and the rotational evolution of solid bodies. Emphasizes modern nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identical to ASTR 553. PTYS is home department. Sample course syllabus, Malhotra (PDF)

PTYS 554

Evolution of Planetary Surfaces

Core Course

PTYS Graduate Core Course. The geologic processes and evolution of terrestrial planet and satellite surfaces including the Galilean and Saturnian and Uranian satellites. Course includes one or two field trips to Meteor Crater or other locales. Identical to: GEOS 554. PTYS is home department. Usually offered: Spring. Sample course syllabus, Byrne (PDF)

PTYS 555

Teaching College-Level Astronomy & Planetary Science

Students will discuss their current or recent experiences as a student. They will also learn how to create productive learning environments by reviewing research on the nature of teaching and learning; setting course goals and objectives; using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, and ranking tasks; and observing other instructors. Students will conduct a collaborative research project of their choosing related to astronomy and space science. The course will culminate with students presenting mock lectures using these techniques. Prerequisite(s): Student must be Astronomy or Planetary Science undergraduate or graduate major. Consent of instructor. Typical structure: 1 hour lecture. May be repeated: for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments). Identical to: ASTR 555. ASTR is home department. May be convened with: ASTR/PTYS 455. Usually offered: Spring. Available for 1 to 3 credits.

PTYS 558

Plasma Physics with Astrophysical and Solar System Applications

The goal of this course is to present an introduction to fundamental plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics, beginning with kinetic theory. The various important limits including the vlasov equation and magnetohydrodynamics will be derived. Applications will be mostly from astrophysics and the solar system. These will include the main dynamical processes in the solar atmosphere, interplanetary medium, magnetospheres, interstellar medium, blast waves, accretion disks, etc. The emphasis throughout will be on basic physical processes and the various approximations used in their application to concrete problems. Identical to ASTR 558, PHYS 558.

PTYS 567

Inverse Problems in Geophysics

Linear and nonlinear inverse theory, including least squares, generalized and maximum likelihood methods. Identical to GEOS 567 and ATMO 567. GEOS is home department.

PTYS 568

Exoplanets: Discovery and Characterization

This course will cover observational and theoretical ideas pertinent to planets orbiting other stars. Discovery and characterization techniques will be emphasized along with associated theory. In-class format will alternate from traditional lectures, guest lectures by local or visiting experts, and student-lead presentations.

PTYS 575

Planetary Astrobiology

This course will explore the processes related to planet formation, the properties of planets and the planetary conditions required for the emergence of life. We will study the formation of our Solar System and exoplanetary systems, the distribution and properties of exoplanets, and the potential habitability of other planets/moons in our system or extrasolar systems. The course will also review science cases and possible future astrobiology studies, both in site and via remote sensing, of astrobiologically relevant environments. Toward the end of the semester a few guest lectures will highlight particularly exciting and timely topics. This course is identical to ASTR 575; may be co-convened with ASTR 475. ASTR is home department.

PTYS 578

Writing Across the Space Sciences

The purpose of this class is to strengthen the writing skills of the student along the entire range of writing, from technical scientific writing in the space sciences to popular articles about science. It has the secondary purpose of preparing the student for the wide variety of occasions when communication skills, written and verbal, will be required in the professional practice of the space sciences. Typically offered: Fall. ASTR is home department.

PTYS 579

Boundary Layer Meteorology & Surface Processes

Designed for students in the atmospheric sciences, hydrology and related fields. It provides a framework for understanding the basic physical processes that govern mass and heat transfer in the atmospheric boundary layer and the vegetated land surface. In addition to the theoretical part of the course, there is a strong focus on modeling and students will be required to program numerical codes to represent these physical processes. Course may be repeated for a maximum of 6 unit(s) or 2 completion(s). Also offered as: ATMO 579, ENVS 579, HWRS 579, WSM 579. ATMO is home department.

PTYS 582

High Energy Astrophysics

A study of pulsars, black holes, accretion disks, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray sources, radio galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and the acceleration of charged particles near these objects, together with the radiation mechanisms they employ to produce the high-energy emission we detect at Earth. This course is identical to ASTR/PHYS 582. ASTR is home department.

PTYS 583

Thermodynamics in Earth and Planetary Sciences

Principles of classical and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermo-chemical and -physical properties; equations of states for solids and gases at high pressure; phase equilibrium; multicomponent systems; electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions; selected applications to petrology, mineralogy, geophysics, geochemistry, and planetary problems. Prerequisite(s): MATH 125; MATH 129 or MATH 124. Identical to: GEOS 583; GEOS is home department. Usually offered: Fall, Spring, alternate years.

PTYS 584

The Coevolution of the Earth and the Biosphere

A geochemical and biological perspective on a range of topics including: early Earth and life, oxygenation of the atmosphere, the Cambrian explosion, rise of land animals, Perman gigantism, mass extinctions, green-ice-hot houses, snowball Earth and Ediacaran fauna, the rise of hominids, megafauna extinctions. GEOS is home department; course is cross-listed with GEOS/PTYS/ASTR and may be co-convened with PTYS 484. May be applied to Astrobiology minor.

PTYS 587

Nuclear Astrophysics

A survey of the origin of the elements in stars and the Big Bang. Topics include supernovae and stellar evolution, abundances in meteorites, metal-poor stars, and high-redshift systems, and the nature of the first stars. Identical to ASTR 587; ASTR is home department.

PTYS 588A

Astrochemistry

This astrochemistry course is the study of gas phase and solid state chemical processes that occur in the universe, including those leading to pre-biotic compounds. Topics include chemical processes in dying stars, circumstellar gas, planetary nebulae, diffuse clouds, star-forming regions and proto-planetary discs, as well as planets, satellites, comets and asteroids. Observational methods and theoretical concepts will be discussed. Graduate-level requirements include a project and an oral exam. Identical to ASTR 588A; may be convened with ASTR 488A. ASTR is home department.

PTYS 589

Topics in Theoretical Astrophysics

Current topics in theoretical astrophysics in depth, with emphasis on the methodology and techniques of the theorist and the cross-disciplinary nature of astrophysics theory. Example subjects are nuclear astrophysics, hydrodynamics, transient phenomena, planetary interiors and atmospheres, neutron stars, jets and the evolution of star clusters. May be repeated for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments). Identical to ASTR 589 and PHYS 589.

PTYS 594A

Planetary Geology Field Studies

The acquisition of first-hand experience with geologic processes and features, focusing on how those features/processes relate to the surfaces of other planets and how accurately those features/processes can be deduced from remote sensing data. This is a three- to five-day field trip to an area of geologic interest where each student gives a short presentation to the group. This trip typically involves camping and occasional moderate hiking; students need to supply their own camping materials. Students may enroll in the course up to 10 times for credit. Trip is led by a Planetary Sciences faculty member once per semester. Altnerative grading (SPF).

PTYS 595B

Special Topics in Planetary Science

Course will emphasize emerging and current topical research in Planetary Science; course will be offered as needed or required.  Sample course topics might include an active spacecraft mission, an emerging research area, or new discoveries.  Course may be co-convened with PTYS 495B. Graduate-level requirements may include an additional project for graduate credit and extra questions on exams, depending on the course/topic taught. Course may be repeated for credit 4x (or up to 12 units). Regular grades assigned (ABC).

PTYS 596A

Planetary Surface Processes Seminar

This seminar course will focus on discussion of planetary surfaces and their evolution, including geology of rocky planets and moons, icy surfaces and moons, regolith development, surface-atmosphere interactions, sub-surface structure and interiors, and climate change. The course will involve the exchange of scholarly information in a small group setting, including presentations and discussions of student research, reviews of recent science results and discussion of proposal ideas. Students will be expected to lead 1 to 2 presentations and participate in group discussions. This course is intended for graduate students; senior undergraduates may be able to enroll with permission of the instructor. Alternative Grading S, P, F; may be repeated for 10 completions/units.

PTYS 596B

Methods in Computational Astrophysics

The course is a "hands-on" introduction to computer use for research by scientists in astrophysics and related areas. The course begins with a survey of and introduction to tools available on Linux systems, web-based tools, and open-source software widely used in astrophysics. Standard methods for integration, iteration, differential and difference equations, and Monte Carlo simulations, are discussed, in one to four dimensions. Historically important methods of radiative transfer, reaction networks, and hydrodynamics are presented, and contrasted with presently-used methods. Parallel programming is introduced, and discussed in terms of new and future computer systems. Special topics are added to reflect new developments. The course is task-oriented, with individual and team work projects, and class participation determining grades. Most of the work is done on the student's own personal computer (Linux or Mac operating systems are preferred). Identical to ASTR/PHYS 596B. ASTR is home department. Equivalent to ASTR 596B and PHYS 596B; ASTR is home department. Typically Offered Spring. Regular or Alternative Grades: ABCDE or SPF.

PTYS 597

Introduction to Planetary Science for Teachers

This is an introductory course designed to provide a basic framework of planetary science content for high school and middle school science teachers. It will not focus on the application of content in other classrooms, however some activities will be included to help students adapt content for their own use. The general objective of this course is to provide an introduction to the dynamic range of processes, features, and histories of the solar system and its bodies. We'll take a tour of solar system formation, compare surface processes (e.g. impact cratering, volcanism) on different planets, discuss near earth asteroids and their interaction with Earth, and a host of other exciting topics. Our knowledge of what is happening in space around us has grown dramatically in the last several decades as we send more spacecrafts out to distant planets and places. We will discuss what kinds of data those spacecraft collect, how we use it to explore the solar system, and what kinds of discoveries we've made about our planet-neighbors. 

PTYS 599

Independent Study

Scheduled as needed

Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799. Units: 1.00 - 5.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,F. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.

PTYS 641

Advanced Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics

Fundamentals and theory of the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. Hierarchy of equation sets used in geophysical fluid dynamics. Concepts of balance, vorticity, potential vorticity. Barotropic and baroclinic instability. Wave mean-flow interactions. Atmosphere/ocean turbulence. Dynamics of Hadley cells and jet streams; role of Rossby waves, gravity waves, and baroclinic eddies in helping to maintain the mean flow. Application of this theory to understand the fundamental mechanisms controlling the tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Earth and other planets. Basics of oceanic circulation, including wind-driven gyres, buoyancy-driven (overturning) circulation, and thermocline dynamics. This course identical to ATMO 641. ATMO is home department.

PTYS 656A

Atmospheric Radiation and Remote Sensing

Theory of atmospheric radiative transfer processes; specific methods for solving the relevant equations; applications to problems in radiative transfer; theoretical basis for remote sensing from the ground and from space; solutions to the "inverse" problem. Identical to ATMO 656A; ATMO is home department. Prerequisite(s): MATH 254.

PTYS 656B

Atmospheric Radiation and Remote Sensing

Theory of atmospheric radiative transfer processes; specific methods for solving the relevant equations; applications to problems in radiative transfer; theoretical basis for remote sensing from the ground and from space; solutions to the "inverse" problem. Equivalent to OPTI 656B. Also offered as ATMO/OPTI 656B (cross-listed). ATMO is home department. Course Requisites: MATH 254.

PTYS 699

Independent Study

Scheduled as needed

Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799. Units: 1.00-5.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,F. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.

PTYS 900

Research

Scheduled as needed

Individual research, not related to thesis or dissertation preparation, by graduate students. Units: 1.00-8.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,C,D,E. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.

PTYS 909

Master's Report

Scheduled as needed

Individual study or special project or formal report thereof submitted in lieu of thesis for certain master's degrees. Units: 3.00-6.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,E,K. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.

PTYS 910

Thesis

Scheduled as needed

Research for the master's thesis (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or thesis writing). Maximum total credit permitted varies with the major department. Units: 1.00 - 4.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,E,K. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.

PTYS 920

Dissertation

Scheduled as needed

Research for the doctoral dissertation (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or dissertation writing). Units: 1.00 - 9.00. Alternative Grading: S,P,E,K. Independent Study Required. Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer 1 and 2.