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The Ulysses mission was an outgrowth of the abandoned International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) that originally involved two spacecraft -- one American and one European -- flying over opposite solar poles to investigate the Sun in three dimensions. Eventually, NASA canceled its spacecraft, significantly eroding the confidence of international partners in the reliability of NASA as a partner, and the mission merged into a single spacecraft, provided by ESA.
Regents' Professor Emeritus
Senior Research Scientist (Retired)
Postdoctoral Research Associate